*** For each of the 4 questions chosen, students will produce a full and clear 3 paragraph answer. (Please note: A paragraph is not 2 small sentences.)
Be sure to answer all parts of the question, and especially provide examples where they are called for.
(!) Also be alert that direct internet quotes, or any un-cited work is not allowed in your answers. PLEASE, If in doubt, check any of the online Plagiarism-checking websites.
Please use one of our Standard fonts: Times New Roman, or standard Verdana, size 12. And Standard margins !
As usual, only a doc, or docx, or pdf file of the Mid-term written essays may be uploaded to Canvas.
The 8 Questions:
1) What is the “Classical Body Ideal?” What are its primary characteristics? How is it depicted in Greek sculpture, and what would 2 examples be of its modern equivalent?
2) Give a few examples of the many significant creations, innovations, and “firsts” that took place in Mesopotamia between 4,000 and 6,000 years B.C.E. ? Why were they significant for the Western World ? What do we still use today that has its origin in Ancient Mesopotamia?
3) What was “Pilgrimage” in Europe in the Middle Ages? Explain its characteristics and why it was important for medieval Christians? How did it play a role in the building of the great cathedrals and abbey churches? Give 2 examples.
4) In class lectures and discussions, we often spoke of how “Iconography” is used in the creative arts of most cultures — in painting, sculpture, film, literature, and even advertising. How does it differ from simple symbolism? Define what we meant by Iconography and give 2 examples that were NOT given in class.
5) Why was the birth of a new social class – a Middle Class – in the 1300’s so significant for the emergence of the Renaissance in the 1400’s? Who were the members of this new class? Where did they rise in power and influence?
6) Define the primary differences between a Romanesque style church or cathedral and a Gothic style one. Be sure to list their individual architectural traits and innovations.
7) Briefly describe the art historian Sister Wendy Beckett’s view and theories regarding the purpose behind Paleolithic cave paintings, such as those at Lascaux, France. You may cite examples from the Paleolithic other than Lascaux as well.
8) As discussed in class, and in the “Art of the Western World” episode 2 on the ancient Romans, what were the characteristics of Roman culture that contributed to its great and lasting success? And…
What innovations and lasting contributions is it known for? Cite 3 examples.

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